画框之间

In between frame


画框之间

 

  何杰的绘画当中最让人印象深刻的绘画要素之一是画框。无论是风景或者人物的题材,在何杰的作品里的“画框“成为独特的绘画符号重复出现,引导观者进入“画中画”的世界-画框之外的另一次元的空间。自从有绘画开始,画框的最早作用是分割画面,在形式上画框区分了框内与框外的两个世界以及语境。何杰在采访中说到他并不是刻意要表现“画中画”的概念,而这种表现手法的契机是在一次外国参观美术馆时终于亲眼看到敬仰已久的佛洛依德的原作时的特别感受。”我记得那件作品特别的小,是一个金色的画框,我从学生时代开始一直想看原作,而当我看到原作原来是那么小的时候,我突然感受到作品的张力,原来艺术是可以超越画框的尺寸无限大,而人的记忆其实不需要太多空间“。或许是不经意的灵光一闪,画框的符号在何杰的作品中重复出现,”之后我发现我的作品中的画框很恰巧给人一种画中画的感受,我当初只是想把绘画当作自己的日记,在画框这个几寸的空间里留下自己的一个印记,这对我自己很有意义。而对我来说画框的意义在于将观者视线集中到画面的中心,画框的存在是把完整的叙事性打破的工具“。何杰的作品中穿越古今东西的绘画题材,例如,英雄归来,女王肖像,歌剧院等宏伟而华丽的场景,而在画作背后他所想要描写的不是这些历史图像在西洋绘画历史中的画框内所扮演的角色,更多的是个人对于生活上的感受以及那个年代的集体记忆的纪录与阐述。”我不需要观者太读懂我的作品,艺术的魅力在一定的距离感之内才有效“,何杰说。源于西方绘画理论的方法,何杰的绘画中,由一个框指向另一个框或者由一个框嵌套另一个框所构成的空间,突破了二次元世界指向画框外的三次元空间,在形式上跨越几何形状所组成的画框的边界,打破了西方美学传统理念,以及艺术语言逻辑。在互联网3.0世代,何杰的绘画语言穿越古今东西,集结个人与集体回忆碎片的叙事方式形成了他特殊的绘画风格。

  自从人类有了电视电影开始,就离不开“框”(Frame,画框论(on Frame)。在后现代影像思潮中亦有众多讨论,以爱森斯坦(Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн为代表的苏联蒙太奇学派提出的蒙太奇理论麦茨(Christian Matz致力于运用后佛洛依德主义(Freudianism精神分析学说以及符号学来研究电影的电影符号学理论,即“画框论”窗户论“”镜像论“这三种电影理论够勾勒出了世界电影理论史发展的总体脉络。画框(frame)本身是建构绘画空间的三次元向度,是让图像超越到另一个空间的概念。到了后现代主义思潮开始,绘画的表现多元化,画框的概念更带入了摄影以及绘画的语汇应用。

 

历史的记忆 二律背反的仪式美学

  在何杰的作品中不乏看到在作品中以趣味的方式引用欧洲艺术大师经典名作局部画面,交织着历史上发生的重大事件的重新呈现,或从报章杂志上看到前苏联的短篇新闻记载,或者是网站上搜寻到的有特殊纪念意义的图像,时间空间的穿越在他的跳跃性延展下,题材从西方皇室穿越到中国当代社会,我们在画面中可以同时看到艺术家在画面中将70年代的社会集体记忆以超现实的手法表现重现。对于何杰来说“任何历史都是模糊的记忆,历史同时也是一种怀旧的表征”。历史怀旧的题材选择与中国的当代艺术家的创作题材密不可分,在何杰的作品中可以看到穿越古今中西的一种具有个人特质的表现手法。“我一开始画黑白,后来开始了蓝色时期,我在绘画里想表现一种对于历史的忧伤与怀旧,即使画面题材是华丽而辉煌的“。华丽宏伟的画面以不成比例,超写实的绘画技巧或滑稽的题材选择等不合乎逻辑的方式夸张的呈现在画面中,这些具有引用(quote)的手法,隐喻意涵(metaphorical)的图像符号是对于当代社会意识形态的直接反射,这些图像是对于辉煌宏伟历史的纪录,看不到崇拜或者愤世嫉俗的痕迹。何杰对于历史以及华丽的题材是一种看似悖论(paradox),但也是二律背反(antinomies)的表现。例如英国皇室的题材,女王,上流社会的宴会,巍巍树立的北欧风格山水绘画表现,图像背后的象征意义往往不是艺术家所呈现那般唯美,”伟大“或者“神圣”的定义在何杰的绘画中艺术家用非常个人的方式解释,他对于当下社会的现象以及精神性是用一种个人的“观看法”。例如艺术家使用日常生活中找到的图像资料来延伸到创作上的”英雄归来“,这是描绘一个旧苏联航空史上重大事件的重现,在苏联的历史上具有划时代的意义,在这里艺术家凸现了当时场景的伟大而充满仪式性氛围的场面,航空成员在光荣归国后接受群众的膜拜眼光,何杰在这里表现的是社会主义下的一种英雄崇拜的群众力量,他用客观而冷静的观点表现对于这种英雄崇拜的群众眼光,他说:”英雄崇拜是社会主义的一种影响,而个人崇拜,实际上也是社会主义反映的一种美学表现,在社会主义社会中有一种共通的美感“。例如出于对英国女王的好奇,何杰将伊丽莎白女王想象成一个森林女王,以趣味性的方式,不对称的比例描绘,女王背对观众,面对一片森林,画面与背影给人一种莫名的想象空间。另一张上海名流晚宴的作品也是对于历史照片的重新描绘,在这里,艺术家将片段的历史记忆,以华丽而宏伟的颜色块面覆盖,而在历史的洪流里涵盖了庞大的信息量与隐喻,其中更涵盖了人类在社会变迁中的时代精神的兴盛迭起。这种伟大的时代精神在社会主义社会尤其,是一种非个人,而属于社会的描绘,时代更迭,捕捉时光的画面变得模糊,华丽宏伟的光景也褪色,历史与社会共构的记忆构成群众的集体回忆(collective memory)。

 

块面与光影的虚拟故事

 在何杰的创作中不难发现“制造“出来的光影表现。这些折射在墙面上的光影有着说不出的存在感。画框上的阴影块面看似理所当然的投射,不相应以及暧昧的色块投射在墙面上,画框中与画框外,这些光影的表现在作品的画面里似乎不存在于画框内外,这两个任一个次元的空间中,而是另一个空间的存在,更强调了绘画本身的语境。他在画面中刻意建构了一种暧昧(Ambiguity)的光影,与作品题材相呼应,充满超现实的画面,让人仿佛意大利超写实主义大师奇里坷(Giorgio de Chirico)一般真空的空间与虚拟场景。这些为了构图完整而存在的光影恰如其分配置在虚拟的故事情节里,从古代穿越到当代的时间,从英国皇室到中国当代社会甚或历史题材的时空表现,他将个人对于个人的题材转移到社会的题材,将个人情绪化的表现转移到群众里,若有似无的故事以虚拟,抽象,跳跃的方式开展,正如这些光影块面的虚拟故事一般。

 

In between frame

 

The most impressive element of He Jie’s paintings is frames. No matter what topics, landscapes or figures, “frame” in Hes works becomes a unique artistic icon and appears repeat, which guides viewers to a world of “Painting in painting” (PIP) ---another dimensional space out of paintings. Since painting was create in earlier time, the usage of frame has been to divide scenes. In formation, a frame separates two areas and contextual environment between inside and outside the frame. While interviewing He, he said that he does not intend to display the concept of “PIP.” The turning point of the expression was due to the special sensation while seeing an original work by Freud in a foreign museum. “I remembered that the work was quite small with a golden frame. I had always desired to see an original masterpiece since I was a student. However, when knowing the work was so small, I suddenly sensed the tension of the work. I acquired that art could exceed its frames and be limitless; moreover, it does not need a large space to store memory for human beings.” Maybe it was just a flashing idea in mind, the symbol of frame was displayed in He’s work continuously. “Afterwards, I found that frames in my paintings gave a perception of PIP incidentally. At first, I merely treated paintings as my dairy, leaving a trace in frames, a tiny space, which was meaningful to me. For me, a frame is to concentrate viewer’s sight in the center of picture. The purpose of a frame is to be a tool to break integrity description.” Topics of He’s art are diversity, including ancient and current elements and western and eastern features. For example, in The Return of Hero, the Portrait of the Queen, Opera House, scenes are magnificent and splendid. Nevertheless, what He attempted to outline was not roles those historical images played in the history of Western Paintings. In fact, He tried to record and illustrates feelings toward livings and the collective memory of an era. “It is not necessary that audiences acknowledge my art thoroughly. Art would be more charming with distance,” He Jie said. Considering art theory generated from west in He’s paintings, the space was constructed by a frame pointed to the other frame or a frame was embedded into the other frame surpassed a two dimensional world to a three dimension world. In terms of format, it crossed the border of frames made by geometry, and crush conventional idea of western aesthetics and logic of artistic language. In the era of web 3.0, He’s artistic language travels through times and spaces. The descriptive methods of gathering individual and collective fragmentizing memory formed his unusual style.

 

Since inventing television and movies, it has been impossible to get rid of “Frame.” On Frame has multi-discussion on Post-Modernist video; for instance, Soviet Montage Theory represented by Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн and Post-Freudianism. Furthermore, Christian Matz was dedicated to studying Film Semiotics through Psychoanalysis and Semiotics. Film Semiotics, Frame Theory, Window Theory and Reflection Theory, outlines the overall context of development of cinema theory. A frame itself was to construct a three dimensional painting area and to lead an image to other spaces. Due to the beginning of idea of Post-Modernism, the expression of paintings became various. In addition, the concept of frame turned to be a linguistic use of photography and paintings.

 

Memory of History --- Ritual Aesthetics of Antinomy

 

In He’s works, it could often see art pieces by classic European masters were partially quoted in an interesting way,. In addition, it allowed to notice representation of significant events, news about Soviet Union from newspapers and magazines and images being worthy of memorizing from internet. Time and space broke the limitation thanks to his jumping thinking, which effects on selecting topics. Topics could be both western noble and Chinese contemporary society. Meanwhile,  collective social memory in 70’s was represented by He in a surreal technique. For He Jie, "history is vague memory and a expression of nostalgia." The subject of history and choosing Chinese contemporary topics has intimate relationship. It revealed that He's works have a technique showing personal characteristics through ancient and modern, west and east. "I used to take black and white pigment and then moved on to the blue period. I attempted to demonstrate sadness and nostalgia in my works, even the topic was marvelous and splendid." The grand and ornate scene was displayed on the canvas exaggeratingly via illogical way like unbalanced and surreal painting skill and ridiculous topics selection. The use of quotation and metaphorical symbol were thought to be a direct reflection toward contemporary social ideology. These icons were not marks of worship and cynical; they were records of glorious history, instead. He's presentation of history and splendid subjects seemed to be a paradox and antinomies as well, for example, the British royalty, the queen, the upper-class banquet and spectacular North European landscape painting style. The truly symbolic meaning of a image was not usually as beautiful as the scene. The definition of "Great" and "Holiness" was been explained in a extremely private methods. He depended on a personal "observation" to evaluate phenomenon and spirituality of current society. Such as the artist took an image found on the internet daily and extended it to create “Return of Hero,” which was to represent a crucial event in Soviet astronautic history. The event had a remarkable meaning in Soviet history. Yet, regarding the painting, the artist highlighted a great scene with ceremonious atmosphere. The astronaut receive admiring sight because of the glory return. What He Jie intended to illustrate was the mass power of hero worship under socialism. He demonstrated the admiration of hero worship in an objective and calm viewpoint. He said that “hero worship is an socialist influence. As for individual worship, in fact, is a sort of reflective aesthetics on Socialism, that there is a common sense of beauty.” Such as the curiosity about British Queen. In He’s imagination, Queen Elisabeth became a Queen of Jungle. In a funny way and unsymmetrical portion of depict, audiences could only see the Queen’s back. She faces the Jungle. The picture and the view of back bring people a unknowing imaginary opportunity. Another other work showed Shanghai celebrity banquet was a representation of ancient image. On the painting, the artist covered fragmental memory by ornate and magnificent pigment. Actually, the float of history includes massive information and metaphor; moreover, the flourish of spirit of time generating due to the changing of human beings society is included as well. As a matter of fact, the great spirit of time would be enhanced in socialist community, and the description is unhuman and public-belonging. Fallowing times, time-catching scenes have gone vague, and the ornate views faded. History and memory constructing by community have nested mass collective memory.

 

The fictional story of lumps of shadow and light


It should not be difficult to discover “producing” light and shadow. Refractions on the walls by the light had an existence being hard to tell. Shadow lumps on the frame were considered to be a certain reflection, which led non-matched and ambiguous color lumps appeared on the wall. The reflection of light and shadow in and out of frames displayed on the surface of a work seemed not to be either in and out of space; it was other dimension, instead. As a result. The contextual sense was highlighted stronger. He created a ambiguity on light and shadow on purpose in order to connect with topics of work. The surreal images, being similar with Italian Surreality master Giorgio de Chirico, made people likely situate in vacuum spaces and virtual environment. The light that appeared to complete composition was placed perfectly in virtual story from ancient times to modern and from British royalty to Chinese present society, or on expressions of history. He transferred individual-to-individual subacts to community subjects and transplanted personal sentiment on society. The ambiguous fiction was told in a virtual, abstract and jumping way, like a virtual story of those lumps of light and shadow.